Books: “Master of the Mountain”

August 22, 2012


My master’s thesis focused on an aspect of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson. As a grad student at Penn State, I had access to the stacks at Butler Library in order to do some of the research. That would have been a good thing for a person with singleness of purpose, but not for an undisciplined scholar like me. The route to the “Jo” section of the stacks took me through the “Je” section, where I frequently stopped to browse through the papers of Thomas Jefferson.  I have always found his intellect irresistible, and he has had an important influence on my writing. Accordingly, my research in the “Jo” section took a lot longer than it should have.

Jefferson, of course, had his flaws, just as we all do. His biggest one, unfortunately, ruined the lives of hundreds of people over several generations — the people he held in slavery, this herald of equality for “all men.”

That’s the topic of Master of the Mountain: Thomas Jefferson and His Slaves,” a book by Henry Wiencek scheduled for publication in October.


 Jefferson, by Wiencek’s account, carefully constructed a society of slaves to do the work at Monticello, Jefferson’s plantation estate in Virginia. Those slaves, like slaves on many other properties in that era, were arranged in a sort of hierarchy based on several factors: Jefferson’s assessment of their potential, the nature  of the work they were consigned to, and their relationship to Jefferson. That’s “relationship” in the literal sense, because many of Jefferson’s slaves had a family connection to his wife, Martha. That relationship originated in a liaison between Jefferson’s father-in-law, Thomas Wayles, and one of his slaves, Betty Heming. There were several children born of that relationship and the whole lot, Betty included, became Jefferson’s property when Wayles died. One of those children was Sally Hemings, with whom, Wiencek and many others believe, Jefferson himself was intimate long after Martha Jefferson had died. That subject has gotten a lot of attention in recent years as researchers have tried to determine with certainty whether or not Jefferson fathered children with Sally Hemings. Wiencek presents arguments on both sides but is convinced by the evidence in favor of paternity, including contemporary accounts of household servants bearing a striking resemblance to the lord of the manor himself.


Sexual relationships between masters and slaves were commonplace. If Jefferson and Sally Hemings had such a relationship it would not be nearly so remarkable as the fact that Jefferson owned slaves at all. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Tommy J wrote that. He also publicly denounced slavery and mixed-race sexual relations and argued for emancipation and citizenship for black Americans. He simply didn’t apply those principles to his own life and “property.” Privately he argued — although he knew from the achievements of his own slaves that he was lying — that he didn’t believe black people were capable of participating in a free society, that they were, in fact, little more than imbeciles. He compared them to children. Wiencek writes and documents that Jefferson once even privately speculated that African women had mated with apes. (CP:  Mr. Wiencek points out in his comments below that Jefferson made this observation publicly.)

Perhaps Jefferson was trying to make himself feel better about his real motive for keeping people in bondage: profit. He had meticulously calculated what an enslaved human being could generate in income, and it was enough for a long time to allow him to live a privileged life, entertaining a constant train of distinguished guests and satisfying his own thirst for fine French wines, continental cuisine, and rich furnishings.


Jefferson wasn’t the only “founding father” to engage in this behavior. James Monroe, James Madison, and George Washington all kept slaves; Washington freed his only in his will. (CP: This is true but out of context, as Mr. Wiencek explains in his comment below.) It is often written in defense of such men that they had grown up in an atmosphere of slavery and were simply products of their time. That’s an idea that Wiencek debunks, both because Jefferson himself had so often excoriated the institution of slavery and because he had been urged by some of his contemporaries to free his slaves. In fact, Jefferson was upbraided by the Marquis de Lafayette, a hero of the American Revolution, who visited the United States in 1824 and bluntly expressed his disappointment not only that slavery was still in place but that Jefferson himself was still holding people in bondage.

Wiencek also reports that at the request of the Polish patriot Tadeusz Kosciuszko, who also had participated in the Revolution, Jefferson assisted in the preparation of Kosciuszko’s will in which he left $20,000 with which Jefferson was to buy and free slaves. When Kosciuszko died, Jefferson refused to carry out the will.

Wiencek’s book is a good opportunity to take a close look at how slavery was constituted, how enslaved men, women, and children lived in Virginia in the early 19th century. But its real value  is in stripping away the veneer that has been placed over men like Jefferson in an effort to legitimize modern political philosophy through a distorted view of the purity of their motives and personal lives.


6 Responses to “Books: “Master of the Mountain””

  1. Fascinating article. I think the woman in the photo is Martha Jefferson Randolph, Jefferson’s daughter, not Jefferson’s first wife Martha Wayles Jefferson. (Mother and daughter were both named Martha.)

  2. charlespaolino Says:

    Thanks so much for catching that error, Sandra!

  3. shoreacres Says:

    And once that veneer has been stripped away, there are all the questions which remain, not least of which is how to reconcile the ideals of our nation’s founding with the imperfections of the men who managed to pull it off.

    I hadn’t heard the story of Jefferson refusing to execute Kosciuszko’s will. That’s quite something.

    • charlespaolino Says:

      Lafayette also made his feelings known to James Madison, who held onto his slaves until he died and didn’t even free them in his will.You remember Madison: the “father of the Bill of Rights.”

  4. Thank you for this notice for “Master of the Mountain.” I have a couple of thoughts — Jefferson quite publicly, not privately, speculated that African women mated with apes. He picked that up from a European travel writer and put it into “Notes on the State of Virginia” as part of his effort to create an image of black people being inferior to whites, while denying that he was trying to do that. Spreading this salacious, fantastical tidbit suited his purpose. Jefferson’s racial slander endured and echoes today, with morons tossing peanuts at a black woman at the Republican convention.

    Strictly speaking, you are correct that Washington freed his slaves “only in his will”; but before that he had been trying for some ten years to free his slaves. I wrote about this in “An Imperfect God.” First, he wavered because of political considerations; then he couldn’t put together the necessary financing; then he ran into opposition from his wife’s family. Scholars have long believed that Washington only made a last-minute decision to free his slaves, but the documents I found show that he had been trying to do it for a long time. Washington’s early efforts failed in part because he ran into people who had Jefferson’s frame of mind.

    Henry Wiencek

  5. charlespaolino Says:

    Thank you for clarifying those points. Your book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of the institution of slavery and of this aspect of Jefferson’s life.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s